The prostate gland an internal organ representing the male reproductive system located between the penis and the bladder. Its size depends on your age; as you age, it grows larger. This gland produces a fluid that forms semen and is ejaculated as a sexual response during intercourse. The issues the prostate gland are common in all men, especially in older men. The secretion of this gland provides nourishment and protection for the sperms. The enlargement of your prostate gland as you age can cause many health issues. These problems can be from inflammation to prostate cancer. Prostate problems can sometimes be a cause of urine related problems. There are many problems related to prostate glands, and here are the four most common problems: –
1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is commonly known as prostate enlargement, which increases the prostate gland’s size and is noncancerous. It is an age-related disease and is a consequence of the muscle tissue weakening and fibrosis in the prostate gland. The muscle tissue here provides the strength for the fluid excretion, but the continuous contractions may break the myofibers and cause injuries. The collagen fibers are replaced in place of the myofibers. The weakening of muscular tissue does not allow the gland to secret the fluid completely from it.
The accumulated fluid can cause resistance to muscular tissue movements, which damages more and more myofibers and will be replaced by the collagen fiber. BPH is more likely to be affected in the second phase growth of the prostate gland. When it enlarges, the urethra is pressed by it. This condition normally does not lead to cancer as it is benign, but cancer can also happen along with it at the same time. In the severe conditions of BPH, you may not be able to pass urine at all, requires to be attended to at the earliest possible as it is an emergency.
- The real cause of the health condition is still unclear. It is mainly seen in older men in the second phase of the growth of the prostate.
- The risk factors mainly include obesity, family history, lack of exercise, type 2 diabetes, erectile dysfunction, etc.
- Trouble to start urination
- Urinating frequently
- Weak urine flow
- Urination inability
- Loss in control of the bladder
- The necessity to apply pressure to pass urine
- Inability to urinate completely
The main aim of the treatment and management of BPH is to prevent complications and reduce its intensity.
- Lifestyle modifications: The alternations needed include physical activities like moderation of alcohol and caffeine product consumption and a timed voiding schedule. The patients should avoid medications that contain anticholinergic properties.
- Medications: The main classes of the medications include alpha-blockers and five alpha-reductase inhibitors.
- Alpha-blockers: For the initial treatment, selective alpha1-blockers are the most commonly given medication. They can improve some of the symptoms shown by this disease.
- 5alpha-reductase inhibitors: Finasteride and dutasteride are the commonly used inhibitors for this in men. It helps in the reduction of symptoms within some months.
The surgery is preferred when the medications are not enough to cure the disease.
2. Prostate Cancer
Cancer that causes the prostate gland, one of the men’s sex organs, is prostate cancer. Most of the cancers related to the prostate are slow-growing but spreads to body parts like bone, lymph, etc. as it starts growing. They are classified as glandular cancers or adenocarcinomas. There are benign and malignant growth types, in which benign are rarely a threat as it does not travel to other parts and malignant travels to other parts, which makes it riskier. If prostate cancer cells travel to the bone and cause cancer, it is prostate cancer, not bone cancer. When the tumor grows larger, it will damage the gland’s nearby places, such as the rectum, seminal vesicle, etc. The cancer cells are abnormal cells that will start to multiply vigorously and can cause great damage to your body.
- The key reason for the occurrence is still unknown. But it is commonly found in men over 40 years.
- Family history and smoking makes you prone to prostate cancer as they are some of the risk factors.
- Urinating frequently
- Pain or trouble in urinating
- They are often experiencing pain in the lower pelvic region.
- Apparent weight loss
- As a result of painful ejaculation
- Pain in bone
- Weak urine flow
- Surgery: Removing the tumor from the body part cannot be treated by any other method. The tumor’s return after the surgery is rare in the benignant tumor, but its chances are high in malignant.
- Radiation therapy: This is done for destroying the cancerous cells using radiation. It is the usual method used in treating cancer.
- Hormonal therapy: It is done by manipulating the endocrine system to change certain gene expressions that control the cancer cells and cure it.
- Chemotherapy: This therapy introduces certain chemicals to our body to inhibit cancerous cells’ cell division.
3. Acute Prostatitis
It is a bacterial infection affecting the prostate gland is termed as Acute Prostatitis. It occurs due to inflammation in the prostate caused by some bacteria that can cause sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This disease starts quickly; it does not last three months or more. The bacteria enter your body and travel through the blood, reach the prostate and cause inflammation, leading to this disease. It may also infect the parts of the genitourinary tract. It can cause a blockage in the urethra, which prevents the flow of urine out.
- Bacteria species include Proteus species, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella
- Injuries to perineum
- Risk factors include persons affected by STDs, UTIs, etc.
- Fever and chill
- Pain and difficulty in urinating
- Urine with a foul smell
- Painful ejaculation
- Blood in urine or semen
- Increase in the frequency of urination
- Experiencing pain in the genital region
- Tenderness of lower stomach
- Body pain
- Antibiotics: These are of great use as it resolves the infection in a short period. The antibiotic administrated to the patient is based on the bacteria-infected.
4. Chronic Prostatitis
The infection in the prostate gland, which continues about three months or longer, is Chronic Prostatitis. The damage and inflammation that occur to the muscles and fibers in the pelvic region can cause this disease. It can also be a cause for diseases related to the urinary tract. This disease has similar symptoms to that of bacterial infection form of it. The urine sample of the patient often contains leucocytes. A normal urine test can determine most of the patients affected by this disease, but this test cannot detect some of their infection because of low-grade infection.
- The identification of the cause is still under research.
- It may be due to psychological stress, physical injury, or damage to the urinary tract.
- Urge for urinating
- Experiencing difficulty and pain during urination
- Pain in the lower abdomen and back
- The uneven flow of urine
- Extreme pain and difficulty while ejaculating
- Cloudy urine
- Some signs of inflection like chills, fever, vomiting, etc.
As the accurate cause of chronic Prostatitis is unknown, the treatment will be based on the patients’ symptoms.
- Antibiotics: A long term course of antibiotics will be useful for patients affecting by chronic Prostatitis.
- Kegel exercises: These are commonly known as pelvic floor exercises. It helps us by improving the difficulties faced when urinating.
The prostatic problems faced by men in their prostatic gland is common nowadays. These diseases are common in men of older age. The causes and symptoms differ from person to person. The exact cause of many of the prostate related diseases is still not found. The medications are so based on the symptoms shown by the patients. The medications will probably reduce the symptoms. If you exhibit the symptoms, make sure to visit a doctor for a primary test, which will decide that you are infected by it or not. Take the medications given by the concerned doctor. Most of these diseases are easily curable by the correct treatment and medications.